Bone Joints Diseases & Disorders

A joint is the meeting point of two or more bones of the body to allow movement. The greater the range of movement, the higher is the risk of injury. Greater joint movement reduces the strength of the joints.

Different Types of Bone Joints

  • Synarthroses (immovable joint)
  • Amphiarthrosis (slightly movable joint)
  • Diarthroses (freely movable joint)

The six types of freely movable joints are:

  • Ball and socket joint
  • Hinge joint
  • Condyloid joint
  • Pivot joint
  • Gliding joint
  • Saddle joint

Diseases & Disorders of The Bone Joints

Arthritis: It is regarded as the inflammation of the joint. Joints become severely damaged with time. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling of the bone joints.

Osteoarthritis: This is one of the most common forms of bone joint disease. It is the wear and tear of the bone joints. It occurs due to increasing age.

Bursitis: In this condition, there is an inflammation of a fluid-filled sac that cushions the joints.

Dislocation: This is the result of any injury. In this condition, the ends of the bones are dislocated or out of the actual position.

Rheumatoid arthritis: This is an autoimmune condition that affects the joint lining.

Gout: This condition affects the joint connecting the big toe to the rest of the foot. It results due to excess uric acid and waste products in the blood.

Spondyloarthritis: It is an umbrella term for rheumatoid diseases.

Lupus: It is an autoimmune disease.

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: It is an autoimmune condition in children.

Symptoms of Bone Joint Disease

  • Stiffness in joints
  • Decreased range of motion
  • Decreased joint function
  • Bumps on finger joints
  • Soft, warm, or painful swelling of both wrists and hands
  • Persistent joint stiffness in the morning
  • Bone or joint pain during any activity
  • Unexplained back pain
  • Stooped posture
  • Fatigue
  • Leg length discrepancy

Risk Factors

  • Age
  • Occupation (sitting or standing in the same posture for a longer duration)
  • Lack of activity level
  • Environmental factors
  • Low sun exposure
  • Low vitamin D
  • Family history
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol habits

Diagnosis of The Bone Joint Diseases

  • The first step of the diagnosis is the medical and physical examination (complete musculoskeletal examination).
  • Imaging tests such as X-rays
  • MIR
  • Ultrasound
  • Blood tests to determine inflammatory processes such as Rheumatoid arthritis
  • DEXA - bone density test to evaluate osteoporosis.

Treatment

Medication is used to treat rheumatoid and osteoarthritis. Drugs like methotrexate and sulfasalazine are used to slow the process of the disease.

Biologic drugs help to reduce inflammation by targeting the immune system.

Drug treatment is not effective in treating osteoarthritis. For this condition, surgical replacement of the large joints such as hip replacement or knee replacement is recommended.

To manage the pain of the joint or the bone, over-the-counter or prescribed pills are recommended.

Topical ointments, gels, sprays are also effective.

For any systemic bone or joint condition, nerve-related pain medication is recommended.

Physical activities and regular exercise play a crucial role in the treatment of arthritis. Resistance training exercises also improve strength around the joints. It also prevents further complications.

For osteoporosis, weight-bearing exercise is recommended.

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